Notes and References
Ramachandra Makhin, the 17th century author of Keraḻābharaṇa, states that ‘the people of Kerala never do care for erecting platforms for sacrifices nor do they practice chanting of vedic hymns; sledom do they observe any religious rites, the sacred vaṣaṭkāra does not sanctify the atmosphere. Their hearts find pleasure only in embracing beautiful women.
naivāsti vediracanā na ca homamantram
dīksāvidhirna ca vasatkrtayo na vāpi,
samirambhalagnahrdayāh khalu keralīyāh. 204
This paper intends to show that the author was thoroughly mistaken in understanding the people of Kerala and their tradition and that his findings are unfounded.
1. History of Nambudiri community in Kerala, M.G. S Narayanan and Kesavan Veluthattu AGNI Vol II.PP 172-173 ;Frists Stall, Asian Humanities Press Berklley.
2. The term ‘Sanskritisation was introduced in 1952 by M. N. Srinivas in his book Religion and Society among the Coorgs of South India (Oxford, 1952). The term is not defined, but is used to mean a process by which a lower caste attempts to raise its status and to raise to a higher position in the caste hierarchy. Sanskritisation may take place through adoption of vegeterianism, of teetotalism, of worship of sanskristic deities or by engaging the service of Brahmanas for ritual purposes. Its essential ingredient is the imitation of behavior and beliefs associated with ritualy high status groups.’ J. F. Stall, The journal of Asian Studies Vol 22, No.3 (May 1963) PP261-275
3. brahmakṣatro jayati vipulo bhūpradeśo mahānto
yatrācāryāh śrutiṣu niratāh śaṅkarādyāḥ babhūvuḥ
4. Bhagavadajjuka on Kutiyattam stage, K.G. Paulose, New Bharatiya Book Corporation, Delhi-2000.
5. Kerala is renowned for its Ayurvedic treatment. It seems strange that Atharva did not have a tradition here.
6. Kutiyattam Theatre- the Earliest Living Tradition, K.G. Paulose D.C Books Kottayam 2006.
7. mezhattolagnihotrī rajakanuḻiyanurttaccanum pinne vaḻḻon
vayillākkunnilappan vaṭutala maruvum nāyar kārakkal mātā
an periyatiruvaran gathe.lum pānanārum
nere nārāyaṇabhrānthanumakavūr cāthanum pākkanārum
8. āl.vancherry viri~nca sanādhan
vedadhvaniyām ghanka –
ḻevā cila vidvadvijamadhuvairatirūòham
nābhiyil malarum nalinam pole…
9. Nāṭya and yajña, Cristopher Byrski, Govt Sanskrit college Tripunithura-1995
10. Notes on comparison of Vedic Mudras used in Kutiyattam and Kathakali. Clifford Jones-AGNI. Vedic Studies in Kerala
11. There were,then only five traditional scholars in Samaveda
i Vasudevan Namboothiri of Perumangattu Mana
ii Aryan Namboothiri of Thottam Mana
iii Narayanan Namboothiri of Thottam Mana
iv Neelakanthan Namboothiri of Nellikkattu Mana
v Vasudevan Namboodiri of Nellikattu Mana.
12. There were several attempts in the past to record Sāmaveda. Some of them are listed below:
i Recording of sāma recital was first attempted by JF Stall in 1971. A copy of it is available with
Sri. M. Subramonian Namboodiri, Muttathukattil Mana. The recording was done in ordinary
spool tape recorder in old 4-track recording system. Hence it is not in a good condition now.
No reproduction is possible.
ii Dr. E. R Sreekrishna Sarma did an audio recording for the portion except ūha and ūs.ān. i.
iii Audio recording incorporating these points also was done at A.I.R Calicut, some time back.
iv Tirupathy Devasthanam has recorded all sāma recitals in audio tapes except ūha and ūs.ān. i.
v Prof. Gune from Denmark and Dr. K Krishna Das from Trivandrum have also taken audio
records of sāma recital.
13. Dr. C. M Neelakandhan of the faculty of Sanskrit Sahitya was given the charge of the new school. By his enthusiastic efforts the school could mark its imprints on our social and cultural life. He continues to hold the position.The school has started post graduate courses now.
14. Some of the important publications on Vedic Studies during the period are given below:
Works edited in English by Dr. C. M Neelakandhan and K. A. Ravindran
i Veda, society and Modernity, Panchangam Pustakasala, Kunnamkulam, 2007.
ii Vedic Texts and the Knowledge systems of India, Department of Vedic Studies, Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit, Kalady, 2010.
iii Preservation Techniques of the Rgveda chanting of Kerala, Dept of Vedic Studies, Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit, Kalady, 2010
Works in Malayalam
iv Vedakiraṇaṅgal, C. M Neelakandhan, Paleli Narayanan Nambudiri,1995
v Ṛgveda Paryaṭanam, C. N Parameswaran, 2003
vi Srutisaurabham, C. M Neelakandhan, 2005
vii Vedaṅgaḻum Śramaṇapāramparyavum. Seminar Proceeds, 2007
viii Ṛgvedabhūmika, P.V Ramankutty, 2007
ix Sāmavedadarpaṇam, K.A Ravindran, 2007
x Adharvavedālokam, Palanatu Vasudevan, 2007
xi Vaidikam, N.V.P Unnithiri, 2007
xii Vedavaṅmayam, Seminar Proceeds, 2007
xiii Vedavicāram, Ed C.M Neelakandhan, 2008
xiv Yajurvedasamhita, P.V Ramankutty, 2008
xv Vedadīpikā, P.V Ramankutty, 2008
xvi Vaidikavijñanam, Seminar Proceeds, 2008
xvii Vedapāṭhasamraksaṇam, N.V.P Unnithiri, 2008
xviii Vedangaḻum dārsanika Paramparyavum, Seminar Proceeds, 2009
xix Kalpam- Oru Samagravedāngam, C R Subhadra, 2009
xx Vedavīcikal, Ed. P. M Damodaran, 2009
xxi Vedasannidhiyil, Pazhedathu Narayanan Nambudiri, 2009
xxii Araṇyakangalku oru amukham, P.V Ramankutty, 2010
xxiii Ars.apramāṇangal, Ed. Vatakkumbattu Narayanan, 2010
xxiv Vedangaḻum Putuvāyanakaḻum, Seminar proceeds, 2010
The list is not exhaustive, veterens like Erkkara Raman Nambudiri, V. K Narayanan Bhattathiri, Vedabandhu and Acharya Narendrabhusan have enriched the vedic literature with their valuable contributions.
15. An American Scholar Wayne Howard travelled all over India to collect information regarding vedic chanting and published his research on sāma chanting from Yale University in 1977. When it came out, Sri. L.S Rajagopal brought to the notice of the author that details regarding the Puthucode chanting is not included in the book. He sent some tapes recording the chanting of Sri Gopala Vadhyar. Sri. Wayane Howard was surprised to note it. He said “ This is the most significant mode of chanting form the musical point of view” He along with Sri Rajagopal prepared two research papers (The Prācīna kautūmasāmaveda of Palakkad, in the journal of Indian Musicological society-1989 and Pracīna kautūma Tradition in South India-Letters from 1985-1988 published in the commemoration volume to Prof. Parpola on his sixteenth birth day in Helsinki-2000) and invited the attention of the world of vedic scholars to Puthucode. Puthucode thus became imprinted in the history of vedic tradition with Gopala Vadhyar as the sole inheritor.
Vedic Studies in Kerala - Notes and References
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